بررسی آثار نامتقارن شاخص‌های اقتصاد باز بر ضریب جینی دهک‌های درآمدی در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و مدیریت، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران.

10.22084/aes.2023.28462.3643

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش تحلیل تأثیر شاخص‌های اقتصاد باز شامل باز بودن اقتصادی و سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی بر توزیع درآمد در ایران طی سال‌های 1374 تا 1398 می‌باشد. برای این‌منظور از رگرسیون فازی با ضرایب نامتقارن استفاده شده است. دلیل استفاده از آن انعطاف‌پذیری بسیار بالا در تحلیل است. برای هر دهک درآمدی، مدلی بهینه برآورد می‌شود که تأثیر شاخص‌های اقتصاد باز را بر ضریب جینی دهک‌های درآمدی نشان می‌دهد. نتایج بیانگر آن است که متوسط تأثیر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی بر ضریب جینی دهک‌های درآمدی صفر یا بسیار کوچک است و نابرابری را کاهش می‌دهد. اما حداکثر تأثیر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی بر ضریب جینی دهک‌های درآمدی افزایش یافته است که منجر به نابرابری در توزیع درآمد می‌شود. این موضوع به‌دلیل نبود برنامه‌ها و سیاست‌های مناسب در اقتصاد است تا بتوان از فرصت سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی برای کاهش نابرابری استفاده کرد. هم‌چنین نتایج نشان می‌دهد که حداکثر تأثیر درجۀ باز بودن اقتصادی بر ضریب جینی دهک‌های درآمدی صفر است، به این معنی که درجۀ باز بودن اقتصادی باعث افزایش نابرابری نمی‌شود؛ بنابراین به‌منظور تقویت یا تضعیف روابط خارجی باید میزان یارانۀ پرداختی به هر یک از دهک‌های درآمدی و زیرساخت‌های موردنیاز برای جذب سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی را فراهم کرد؛ هم‌چنین اقداماتی را برای اخذ مقدار بهینۀ مالیات از دهک‌های درآمدی فراهم می‌کند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Asymmetric Effects of Open Economy Indicators on the Gini Coefficient of Income Deciles in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Ashraf Ganjoei
Assistant Professor, Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of open economy indicators including economic openness and foreign direct investment on income distribution in Iran during the years 1996 to 2018. For this purpose, we use fuzzy regression with asymmetric coefficients. The reason for using it is very high flexibility in analysis. For each income decile, an optimal model is estimated that shows the effect of open economy indicators on the Gini coefficient of income deciles. The results show that the average effect of foreign direct investment on the Gini coefficient of income deciles is zero or very small and reduces inequality. But the maximum impact of foreign direct investment on the Gini coefficient of income deciles has increased, which leads to inequality in income distribution. This is due to the lack of appropriate programs and policies in the economy, so that we can use the opportunity of foreign direct investment to reduce inequality. Also, the results show that the maximum effect of the degree of economic openness on the Gini coefficient of income deciles is zero, which means that the degree of economic openness does not increase inequality. In order to strengthen or weaken foreign relations. Therefore, the amount of subsidy paid to each of the income deciles provides the infrastructure needed to attract foreign investment and provides measures for the treasury to tax the income deciles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gini Coefficient
  • Asymmetric Coefficients
  • Fuzzy Regression
  • Open Economy Indicators
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