اثر صنایع خلاق بر نرخ اشتغال (روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم اقتصادی، دانشکدۀ علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد، گروه علوم اقتصادی، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

10.22084/aes.2023.28218.3624

چکیده

اهمیت رو به رشد صنایع خلاق در طی سالیان اخیر، این صنایع را  به موضوع بحث در اقتصاد جهانی مبدل کرده است؛ به‌نحوی‌که بسیاری از کشورها جایگاه ویژه‌ای را برای این صنایع درنظر می‌گیرند. در دهه‌های اخیر تغییراتی در ساختار اقتصادها به‌وقوع پیوسته که موجب تغییر شکل ساختار اشتغال در کشورها شده است. صنایع خلاق به‌سرعت درحال تبدیل شدن به موتورهای قدرتمند رشد و توسعۀ اقتصادی هستند و این امر پیامدهای عمیقی در ساختارهای اقتصادی و اشتغال جوامع به‌دنبال دارد. صنایع خلاق از خلاقیت، نوآوری، مهارت‌ها و توانایی افراد برای ایجاد اشتغال استفاده می‌کنند و پتانسیل بالایی در گسترش آن دارند. خلاقیت به‌عنوان یک دارایی استراتژیک کلیدی که در فرآیند تولید همۀ کالاها و خدمات مهم است، در الگوهای اقتصادی نمود پیدا کرده است. ازطرف دیگر، خلاقیت، یک فرآیند ذهنی است که نمی‌توان آن‌ را از نظام فرهنگی و اجتماعی که افراد در آن فعالیت می‌کنند، جدا نمود؛ از این‌رو، پژوهش حاضر  نقش صنایع خلاق را در اشتغال 98 کشور توسعه‌یافته و درحال توسعه طی دورۀ زمانی 2011 الی 2020م. با استفاده از روش گشتاورهای تعمیم‌یافته (GMM) مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد؛ بدین‌منظور در این پژوهش، سه الگو برآورد شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان‎دهندۀ اثر مثبت و معنادار صنایع خلاق بر اشتغال کشورهای موردمطالعه در تمامی الگوهای پژوهش است. براساس نتایج به‌دست آمده ضریب صنایع خلاق در کشورهای توسعه‌یافته (0.3539) از مقدار این ضریب در کشورهای درحال توسعه (0.2992) بیشتر است؛ بنابراین انتظار می‌رود میزان تأثیرگذاری تولیدات خلاقانۀ فرهنگی و هنری بر اشتغال در این کشورها بیشتر از کشورهای درحال توسعه باشد؛ از دیگر یافته‌های پژوهش می‌توان به تأثیر منفی تورم بر اشتغال و هم‌چنین تأثیر مثبت سرمایۀ انسانی، تولید ناخالص داخلی، سرمایه‌گذاری و درجۀ باز بودن اقتصاد بر اشتغال اشاره نمود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Creative Industries on Employment Rate Using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Zobeiri 1
  • Maryam Ehsani 2
1 Associate Professor of Economics, Department of Economic Sciences, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 M.A in Economics, Department of Economic Sciences, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, the increasing significance of creative industries has made them a topic of discussion in global economics. This has profound ramifications for the economic structures and employment of societies as the creative industries swiftly emerge as potent engines of economic growth and development. Creative industries utilize the creativity, innovation, skills, and aptitude of individuals to generate employment and have a high expansion potential. Using GMM the current study investigates the impact of creative industries on employment in 98 selected countries from 2011 to 2020. The results of this study indicate a positive and statistically significant effect of “creative industries” on employment in our three different models. The coefficient of creative industries in developed countries (0.3539) is greater than its value in developing countries (0.2992), as indicated by the results obtained. Consequently, it is anticipated that the influence of artistic, cultural, and creative productions on employment in these nations will be greater than in developing nations. Also, the results has demonstrated that inflation has an adverse effect on employment, while human capital, gross domestic product, investment, and the level of economic openness all have a positive influence on employment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Creative Industries
  • Art
  • Cultural Industries
  • Employment
  • Sustainable Development
  • Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)
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