عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
It is important to consider relationship among liberalized trade, economic development and environmental degradation from different economic, social and politic aspects. This paper has investigated the long run relationship among economic growth, trade liberalization and environmental degradation along with other economic factors such as industrialization and fertilizer consumption, over the period of 1980-2005 in Iran. The majority of the studies which have been done in this field in Iran have considered the air pollution as an environmental degradation measure. According to the importance of water pollution and its close relationship with economic and trade factors, this study has considered the emission of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a measure of this pollution and also has surveyed the impact of above factors on it. Besides, to estimate the research model in this paper, the Vector Autoregression Method (VAR) has been utilized and the cointegration relationship among the variables has been achieved by Johansen and Juselius method. The results show that economic growth, agricultural and industrial activities affect water pollution emission directly, while trade liberalization has a reversed effect on it.
in order to decrease water pollution emission it is necessary to force industries and manufacturing units to filter their wastewater as well as using technology and modern methods in agricultural sectors and limiting fertilizer consumption.