بررسی تعاملات بین شاخص‌های مراقبت‌های سلامتی، نابرابری درآمد و رشد اقتصادی: مطالعۀ موردی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان، ایران

10.22084/aes.2021.21983.3092

چکیده

امید به زندگی و مرگ‌ومیر نوزادان ازجمله مهم‌ترین شاخص‌های ارزیابی کارایی سیستم سلامت اجتماعی محسوب می‌شوند. حجم بزرگی از مطالعات انجام شده در حوزۀ اقتصاد بهداشت مربوط به اثرات خطی و یک‌جانبۀ متغیرهای اصلی کلان اقتصادی اقتصادی ازقبیل نابرابری درآمد و رشد اقتصادی بر روی شاخص‌های اقتصاد بهداشت بوده‌اند و کمتر به اثرات دوجانبه و هم‌زمان توجه شده است. ازا ین‌روی، مقاله حاضر به بررسی اثر دوجانبه و هم‌زمان متغیرهای اشاره شده در اقتصاد ایران می‌پردازد. بدین‌منظور، دستگاه معادلات هم‌زمان مبتنی‌بر متغیرهای امید به زندگی، مرگ‌و‌میر نوزادان و رشد اقتصادی با درنظر گرفتن ضریب جینی در معادلات طی دورۀ زمانی 1395-1360 برآورد گردیده است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهند که رشد درآمد ملی به‌طور مثبت و با ضریب تأثیر 31% شاخص امید به زندگی ایرانیان را تحت‌تأثیر قرار می‌دهد، ولی رشد اختلاف طبقاتی و نابرابری درآمدی، اثری منفی بر این شاخص داشته است. هم‌چنین، با افزایش بودجۀ مراقبت و بهداشت در ایران، شاخص مرگ‌و‌میر نوزادان رشد منفی چشم‌گیر 81% را تجربه نموده است که اهمیت نقش مجلس و قوۀ مقننه در تصویب و ارتقاء بودجه وزارت بهداشت و تسهیل دست‌یابی به سطوح بالاتری از شاخص‌های بهداشتی و سلامت را نشان می‌دهد. درنهایت، برآوردها بیانگر اثر هم‌زمان و مثبت بهبود رشد شاخص امید به زندگی و اثر معکوس افزایش رشد مرگ‌ومیر نوزادان بر رشد اقتصادی می‌باشد. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان‌دهندۀ وجود یک «حلقۀ تقویت‌کننده» بین بهبود شرایط اقتصادی و بهبود شاخص‌های اقتصاد سلامت است و شواهدی مبنی‌بر وجود رابطه‌ای متقابل و دوجانبه بین متغیرهای این دوحوزه در اقتصاد ایران به‌دست آمده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Interactions among Health Care Indicators, Income Inequality and Economic Growth: A Case Study of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Hosseinidoust 1
  • Hamid Sepehrdoost 2
  • Akbar Khodabakhshi 1
  • Sharareh Massahi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Economic, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics & Social Science, Bu-Ali Sian University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Economic, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics & Social Science, Bu-Ali Sian University, Hamedan, Iran
3 M.A. in Economics, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics & Social Science, Bu-Ali Sian University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Life expectancy and infant mortality are two major indicators for assessing the efficiency of every social health system. The bulk of literature on health economics is related to unilateral influences of macroeconomic variables on health sector indices and less attention has been paid to bilateral and simultaneous effects. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the bilateral and simultaneous impacts of the key macroeconomic variables on life expectancy and infant mortality in Iran during 1981-2018. To this end, by considering the government’s health care expenditures and GINI coefficient, a system of simultaneous equations based on variables of life expectancy, infant mortality and economic growth is developed. The findings indicated that income growth per capita affects the growth of life expectancy index positively by 31%, but the growth of social-class differences or income inequality has a negative effect on this index. Moreover, the escalation of health care budget in Iran has led to slumps in infant mortality rate by 83%. Such outcome exhibits the significant role of government, parliament and legislature in approving and improving the budget of the Ministry of Health and facilitating achievement of higher social-health standards. Finally, findings of present study reflected the simultaneous and positive effects of improving growth of life expectancy and reverse effect of infant mortality growth indices on the economic growth of Iran. The estimations provided evidence on the interactions between enhancing the macroeconomic conditions and improving the health economy indicators and existence of a reinforcing loop between them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Life Expectancy
  • Gini Coefficient
  • Infant Mortality Rate
  • Economic growth
  • Simultaneous Equations
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