اثر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی و سرمایۀ انسانی بر رشد اقتصادی: شواهدی از کشورهای منتخب اسلامی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ علوم اقتصادی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد، گروه اقتصاد، دانشکدۀ علوم اقتصادی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان، ایران

10.22084/aes.2020.22017.3099

چکیده

سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی (FDI) یکی از  عوامل شتاب‌دهندۀ رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای توسعه‌یافته و در حال توسعه  طی سال‌های اخیر می‌باشد. موضوع مهم و موردتوجه اقتصاددانان چگونگی اثر FDI  بر رشد اقتصادی کشورهای میزبان است. در اقتصاد بسته، هیچ‌گونه دسترسی به ابزار‌های مالی خارجی و پس‌انداز وجود ندارد؛ زیرا چنین اقتصادی صرفاً متکی به پس‌انداز‌ها و منابع سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی است. اما در اقتصاد باز، سرمایه‌گذاری یا از منابع پس‌اندازهای داخلی و یا از سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی تأمین می‌شود. در این مطالعه اثر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی بر رشد اقتصادی 30 کشور منتخب اسلامی بررسی می‌شود. برای تخمین مدل از تکنیک PMG که برای پانل‌های نامتجانس پویا استفاده شده است و دورۀ زمانی موردمطالعه 1992-2016 می‌باشد. نتایج تحقیق نشان‌داد که FDI  دارای اثر مثبت و معنی‌داری بر رشد اقتصادی کشورهای مورد مطالعه است. البته اثر متقابل FDI  و سرمایۀ انسانی، FDI  و تجارت باز بر رشد اقتصادی بیشتر از اثرات انفرادی آن‌ها در کوتاه‌مدت و بلندمدت است. براساس نتایج تحقیق، پیشنهاد می‌شود که دولت‌ها باید سیاست‌های مالی، پولی و تجاری مناسب را برای مساعد نمودن محیط جهت جذب جریان سرمایۀ خارجی به‌عنوان مکملی برای سرمایۀ خارجی به‌کار برند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and Economic Growth: Evidence from Selected Islamic State Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mowlaei 1
  • Aburaihan Intezar 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
2 M.A. in Economics, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Foreign direct investment (FDI) as a growth accelerating component has received a great attention in developed countries even in developing and less developed countries during recent years. It has a matter of greater concern for the economists how FDI affects economic growth of the host country economy. In closed economy there is no access to the foreign instruments and savings, this type of economy solely based on the domestic savings and investment sources. But in open economy, the investment comes from both sources either from domestic savings or foreign capital inflows like FDI. FDI enables the host country to achieve the investment level beyond its capacity to improve GDP and economic growth.  FDI encourages the process of economic growth by filling up the saving-investment gap; transferring advanced technology, new entrepreneurship. This study investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment on economic growth in 30 Islamic countries. The econometric model is estimated by using Pooled Mean Group (PMG) for dynamic heterogeneous panels over the period 1992-2018.  The results of the study show that FDI inflows have positive and significant effects on economic growth. Of course, the impacts of interaction terms between FDI and human capital; FDI, and trade openness on economic growth are more than each of them separately in the long and short run.  The study suggests that the Islamic governments should design and implement appropriate fiscal, monetary and trade policies to make and improve an enabling environment to attract foreign Capital inflows as a supplementary source of domestic investment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic growth
  • Foreign Direct Investment‌
  • Human Capital
  • Islamic countries
  • Pooled Mean Group
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