نقش سرمایه انسانی در رشد اقتصادی، مصرف انرژی و آلودگی زیست‌محیطی در راستای توسعه پایدار در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 استادیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصاد دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان.

چکیده

در این پژوهش نقش سرمایه انسانی در توسعه پایدار از طریق بررسی همزمان سه معادله­ی رشد اقتصادی، مصرف انرژی و انتشار CO2 با استفاده از روش گشتاورهای تعمیم‌یافته (GMM) طی دوره زمانی 2014-1971 بررسی و تحلیل‌شده است. در همین راستا و با هدف بهبود تبیین مفهوم سرمایه انسانی در این الگوی معادلات همزمان از شاخص سرمایه انسانی مبتنی بر متوسط سال­های تحصیل و بازدهی­های آموزش استفاده شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که سرمایه انسانی در ایران به‌دلیل عدم توجه به آموزش­های کاربردی، کیفیت آموزش و به‌کارگیری در موقعیت­های شغلی نامتناسب با تحصیلات نه‌تنها منجر به افزایش رشد اقتصادی نشده است بلکه با اخلال در روند تخصیص بهینه منابع و اتلاف منابع، کاهش رشد اقتصادی را نیز به همراه داشته است. همچنین نتایج مؤید نقش سرمایه انسانی در کاهش مصرف انرژی و در نتیجه کاهش انتشار آلودگی از طریق گسترش فناوری­های کارا و کاهنده انرژی است. از طرفی افزایش سرمایه­گذاری سبب افزایش رشد اقتصادی در ایران شده است؛ اما در روند رشد و مصرف انرژی به ملاحظات زیست‌محیطی توجهی صورت نپذیرفته است. در نهایت نتایج نشان­دهنده­ی آن است که افزایش رانت­های نفتی در ایران در مقادیر پایین، سبب کاهش رشد اقتصادی شده است درحالی‌که در مقادیر بالا، افزایش رشد را به همراه داشته است؛ بنابراین علائمی از بروز پدیده "نفرین نفت" در ایران حداقل در مقادیر کم رانت­های نفتی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Human Capital in Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and Environmental Pollution along with Sustainable Development in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeid jafari 1
  • Marziyeh Esfandiari 2
  • Mosayeb Pahlavani 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Sistan and Baluchestan University
3 Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Sistan and Baluchestan University
چکیده [English]

In this study, the role of human capital in sustainable development has been analyzed through A simultaneous equations models (economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions) using (GMM) over the period of 1971-2017. In this regard, and with the aim of improving the concept of human capital, average years of schooling and returns to education have been used as human capital index in the model. The results show that human capital in Iran due to the lack of attention to applied educations, the quality of education and mismatch between employment education and their jobs, not only lead to increase in economic growth but also make economic growth slowdown through Disruption of optimal resource allocation and waste of resources. The results also confirm the role of human capital in reducing energy consumption and thereby CO2 emission through the development of energy efficient technologies. The results also show that environmental considerations have not been taken into account in the process of economic growth and energy consumption. Finally, the results show that oil rents in Iran have reduced economic growth and thus اhas been led to the “oil curse phenomenon”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human Capital
  • Sustainable Development
  • Economic growth
  • Energy Consumption
  • CO2 Emission
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