Estimation of Non-Market Value of Qeshm Hara Forest Using the Approach Selection Modeling

Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.


The Hara forest, also known as the mangrove protected area, with an area of 200 square kilometers, is located in the Khoran Strait, between Qeshm Island and Khamir Port in Hormozgan Province. These forests provide countless services to the community in terms of ecology, economy and tourism, and are very important from this perspective. The purpose of this article is to help policy makers and planners to manage the forest efficiently and sustainably. For this purpose, using selection modeling analysis, the value of qualitative benefits provided by this forest to the community was estimated. For this purpose, the logit model with simple random parameters and then the logit model with combined random parameters (with action sentences) were used to estimate the heterogeneity in community preferences for different forest characteristics. The results of this study show that people's preferences are significantly heterogeneous. Also, in this study, the tendency of final payment for non-market characteristics of mangrove forest including natural landscape, ecological yield and biodiversity was estimated. Finally, the numbers obtained for the willingness to make the final payment were generalized to the whole community, resulting in the annual value of the qualitative benefits along with their total value. These numbers for the annual and total value (capital) are equal to 321109 and 1.536.084 billion rials, respectively. The calculated existential value shows that the community is willing to pay to protect this forest and there is a potential to use the results of the present study as a baseline study to improve the level of public awareness and witness a very high level of public participation in conservation projects. It was from this forest. The obtained numbers can also be used for economic-environmental evaluation of projects in and around this forest.


Main Subjects

اسماعیلی، عبدالکریم؛ و پرون، صدیقه، (1389). «برآورد ارزش بازاری جنگل حرا در منطقۀ حفاظت‌شده قشم». اقتصاد کشاورزی (اقتصاد و کشاورزی)، شمارۀ 4(2)، صص: 131-147.
 اسماعیلی، عبدالکریم؛ و پرون، صدیقه، (1389). «برآورد ارزش غیربازاری جنگل حرا در استان هرمزگان». اقتصاد کشاورزی (اقتصاد و کشاورزی)، شمارۀ 24(12) صص: 168-162.
دهقانی، محسن؛ فرشچی، پروین؛ دانه‌کار، افشین؛ و کرمی، محمود، (1389). «ارزش‌گذاری تفرجگاهی جنگل‌های مانکرو در منطقه حفاظت‌شده حرا به‌روش هزینۀ سفر». مجله پژوهش‌های علوم و فناوری چوب و جنگل، شمارۀ 17(1)، صص: 33-48.
پوران، رقیه؛ راغفر، حسین؛ قاسمی، عبدالرسول؛ و بزازان، فاطمه، (1396). «محاسبۀ ارزش اقتصادی آب مجازی با رویکرد حداکثرسازی بهره‌وری آب آبیاری». فصلنامۀ مطالعات اقتصادی کاربردی ایران، شمارۀ 6 (21)، صص: 189-212.
مشایخی، زهرا؛ شرزه‌ای، غلامعلی؛ دانه‌کار، افشین؛ و ماجد، وحید، (1397). «کاربرد روش آزمون انتخاب در برآورد ارزش اقتصادی جنگل‌های حرا قشم». علوم محیطی، شمارۀ 16(1)، صص: 69-88. 
منتظرحجت، امیرحسین؛ و منصوری، بهزاد، (1395). «ارزش‌گذاری اقتصادی منافع محیط زیستی مطالعه موردی تالاب بامدژ». فصلنامۀ مطالعات اقتصادی کاربردی ایران، شمارۀ 5 (181)، صص: 1-27.
منتظرحجت، امیرحسین؛ و منصوری، بهزاد، (1393). «ارزش‌گذاری خدمات استفاده‌ای تالاب شادگان». فصلنامۀ اقتصاد مقداری، شمارۀ 11(5)، صص: 18-32.
کوه‌گردی، اسماعیل، (۱۳۹۰). نگاهی اجمالی به جنگل‌های حرا در ایران، همایش منطقه‌ای جنگل‌ها و محیط‌زیست ضامن توسعه پایدار. بوشهر: دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بوشهر،
Birol, E.; Karousakis, K. & Koundouri, P., (2006). “Using choice experiment to account for reference heterogeneity in wetland attributes: the case of Cheimaditita wetland in Greece”. Ecological Economics, No. 60, Pp: 145–156.
Cui, L. J.; Pang, B.L.; Li, W.; Ma, M. Y.; Sun, B. D. & Zhang, Y. Q., (2016). Ecosystem services value in zhalong wetland Acta Ecol. No. 36, Pp:1–10.
Dehghani, M.; Farshchi, P.; Danehkar, A. & Karami, M. (1389). “Valuation of Mancro Forest Resorts in the Mangrove Protected Area by Travel Cost”. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology Research, No. 17 (1), Pp: 33-48. (In Persian)
Ismaili, A. & Peron, S. (1389). “Estimation of market value of mangrove forest in Qeshm protected area”. Agricultural Economics (Economics and Agriculture), No. 4 (2), Pp. 131-147, (In Persian).
 Ismaili, A. & Peron, S. (1389). “Estimation of non-market value of mangrove forest in Hormozgan province”. Agricultural Economics (Economics and Agriculture), No. 24 (12) pp. 168-162, (In Persian).
Jenkins, A. W.; Murray, B. C.; Kramer, R. A. & Faulkner, S. P., (2010). “Valuing ecosystem services from wetlands restoration in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley”. Ecological Economics, No. 69, Pp: 1051–1061.
Kaffashi, K.; Shamsudin, M.; Radam, A.; Yacob, M.; Rahim, K. & Yazid, M., (2012). “Economic valuation and conservation: Do people vote for better preservation of Shadegan International Wetland?”. Biological Conservation, No. 150, Pp: 150-158.
Koohgardi, I. (2011). “An Overview of Mangrove Forests in Iran, Regional Conference on Forests and Environment Ensuring Sustainable Development. Bushehr Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch,, (In Persian).
Lancaster, A., (1966). “New approach to consumer theory”. Journal of Political Economy, No. 74, Pp: 132–157.
Mashayekhi, Z.; Sharzei, G.; Danehkar, A. & Majid, V. (1397). “Application of selection test method in estimating the economic value of Qeshm mangrove forests”. Environmental Sciences, No. 16(1), Pp: 69-88, (In Persian).
McConnell, K. & Tseng, W., (2000). “Some preliminary evidence on sampling of alternatives with the random parameter’s logit”. Marine Resource Economics, No. 14(4), Pp: 317–332.
McFadden, D., (1974). Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior. In: Zarembka, P. (Ed.), Frontiers in Econometrics, New York, Academic Press.
Mitchell, R. C. & Carson, R. T., (1989). Using surveys to value public goods: the contingent valuation method. Resource for the Future, Washington, DC .
Montazer-Hojat A. H. & Mansouri, B., (2020). “Valuing of the Benefits of Endangered Miangaran Wetland”. International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statitstics, No. 41(2), Pp: 71-84.
Montazerhojat, A. & Mansouri, B. (1393). “Evaluation of services used in Shadegan wetland”. Quantitative Economics Quarterly, No. 11(5), Pp. 18-32, (In Persian).
Montazerhojat, A. & Mansouri, B. (2015). “Economic Valuation of Environmental Benefits: A Case Study of Bamadj Wetland”. Iranian Journal of Applied Economic Studies, No. 5(181), Pp. 1-27, (In Persian).
Newell Laurie, W. & Swallow Stephen, K., (2013). “Real-payment choice experiments: Valuing forested wetlands and spatial attributes within a landscape context”. Ecological Economics, No. 92, Pp: 37-47.
Pouran, R.; Raghfar, H.; Qasemi, A. & Bazazan, F. (1396). “Calculation of economic value of virtual water with the approach of maximizing irrigation water efficiency”. Iranian Journal of Applied Economic Studies, No. 6(21), Pp: 189-212, (In Persian).
Ramsar Convention Bureau (1971). Appendix 7, Ramsar Wetland Definition, Classification and Criteria for Internationally Important Wetlands. Ramsar Bareo, Iran.
Setlhogile, T.; Arntzen, J.; Mabiza, C. & Mano, R., (2011). “Economic valuation of selected direct and indirect use values of the Makgadikgadi wetland system, Botswana”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, No. 36, Pp: 1071-1077.
Thomas, J. M. & Callan, S. J., (2007). Environmental Economics: Applications: Policy and Theory. Canada, Thomson.
Turner, R. K.; Pearce D. W. & Bateman, I., (1993). Environmetal economics: An elementary introduction. Baltimore, Maryland The John Hopkins University Press.
Westerberg, V. H.; Lifran, R. & Olsen S. B., (2010). “To restore or not? A valuation of social and ecological functions of the Marais des Baux wetland in Southern France”. Ecological Economics, No. 69, Pp: 2383-2393.
Zulkarnaini, Y. & Mariana, M. (2016). “Economic Valuation of Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Indragiri Estuary”. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, No. 10(1), Pp: 13-17, (In Persian).